Handley Page Halifax
|Első repülés||1939. október 25.|
A Handley oldal Halifax was a Royal Air Force (RAF) four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War. It was developed by Handley Page to the same specification as the contemporary twin-engine Avro Manchester. The Halifax has its origins in the twin-engine HP56 proposal of the late 1930s, produced in response to the British Air Ministry’s Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for “world-wide use.” The HP56 was ordered as a backup to the Avro 679, both aircraft being designed to use the underperforming Rolls-Royce Vulture engine. The Handley Page design was altered at the Ministry to a four-engine arrangement powered by the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine; the rival Avro 679 was produced as the twin-engine Avro Manchester which, while regarded as unsuccessful mainly due to the Vulture engine, was a direct predecessor of the famed Avro Lancaster. Both the Lancaster and the Halifax would emerge as capable four-engined strategic bombers, thousands of which would be built and operated by the RAF and several other services during the War.
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|Handley Page Halifax Bomber Walk Around|
|Localisation||RCAF Royal Canadian Air Force Museum|
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The Handley Page Halifax was a four-engined heavy bomber of the British Royal Air Force during the Second World War. It was developed by Handley Page to meet the same specification as the Avro Manchester, a twin-engine bomber that proved to be unreliable and underpowered. The Halifax used the more successful Rolls-Royce Merlin engines and had a larger wingspan and payload capacity than the Manchester. The Halifax made its first flight on 25 October 1939 and entered service with the RAF on 13 November 1940.
The Halifax was one of the main bombers of Bomber Command, along with the Lancaster and the Stirling. It carried out strategic bombing missions against Germany and occupied Europe, as well as other targets such as U-boats, V-weapon sites, and oil refineries. The Halifax had a crew of seven, consisting of a pilot, a flight engineer, a navigator, a bomb aimer, a wireless operator, and two gunners. The Halifax was armed with six or eight .303 Browning machine guns in various turrets, and could carry up to 5,897 kg of bombs in its internal bomb bay.
The Halifax underwent several improvements and modifications throughout its service life, such as more powerful engines, better defensive armament, increased fuel capacity, and improved aerodynamics. The Halifax also performed other roles besides bombing, such as maritime patrol, glider towing, paratroop transport, and supply dropping. The Halifax was also used by other Allied air forces, such as the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Free French Air Force, and the Polish Air Force. The Halifax was retired from RAF service at the end of the war, after being replaced by the Avro Lincoln as a strategic bomber. A total of 6,176 Halifaxes were built between 1940 and 1946.